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Bhutan’s Secretive and Large-Scale Bitcoin Mining Operations Revealed




The Kingdom of Bhutan, a landlocked Himalayan nation renowned for its Gross National Happiness philosophy and breathtaking landscapes, has recently emerged as a significant player in the cryptocurrency mining world. Through a detailed investigation by Forbes, using satellite imagery and insider sources, Bhutan’s clandestine involvement in Bitcoin mining, a venture initiated to avert an economic crisis, has been brought to light.

Uncovering the Covert Operations

Journalists from Forbes, using satellite imagery from Planet Labs, Satellite Vu, and Google Earth, have discovered what appear to be four substantial crypto-mining facilities across Bhutan. These sites, previously undisclosed to the public, are strategically placed amidst dense forests and mountainous terrain, making them nearly invisible to the casual observer. One of the facilities is located near the Dochula Pass, an area of great cultural and political significance, home to 108 memorial shrines. Other sites include Trongsa, Dagana, and the site of a failed $1 billion government project called “Education City.”

Bhutan’s Economic Strategy: A Shift to Digital Assets

Bhutan, often called “The Last Shangri-la,” has historically depended on tourism and hydropower exports for its economic well-being. However, the COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted these revenue streams, leading to increased youth unemployment and a rise in emigration rates. In response, Bhutan’s monarch, King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, turned to cryptocurrency mining as a means to diversify the country’s economic strategy and prevent a potential economic crisis.

The Scale of Bhutan’s Bitcoin Mining Endeavor

  • Energy and Infrastructure Investments: Bhutan’s crypto-mining operations consume a significant amount of electricity, contributing to a surge in the country’s energy imports and usage. In 2023, Bhutan purchased $20.7 million worth of electricity. High-capacity power lines and transformers connect the mining sites to Bhutan’s hydroelectric plants.
  • Financial Commitments: Customs data indicates that Bhutan imported $193 million worth of processing units consistent with Bitcoin mining hardware around December 2021. These investments align with a 63% increase in the country’s power consumption by the industry in 2022.
  • Mining Chip Imports: Bhutan’s trade data shows over $220 million in mining chip imports from China between 2021 and 2022. Druk Holdings & Investment (DHI), Bhutan’s sovereign investing arm, has confirmed these investments but remained secretive about the details.

Global Context and Bhutan’s Unique Position

El Salvador is currently the only country known to run state-owned crypto mines, but Bhutan’s operations are arguably larger and more extensive. The country’s strategy, initiated around 2020 amid Bitcoin’s valuation fluctuations, represents a bold step in economic diversification. Despite the volatility of Bitcoin’s price, DHI disclosed a net positive position in its digital asset investments.

Implications and Future Prospects

The revelation of Bhutan’s state-owned Bitcoin mining operations signifies a major shift in the country’s approach to economic challenges. These ventures, while aiding in mitigating the impacts of the pandemic, also present questions regarding sustainability and environmental impact, given the energy-intensive nature of Bitcoin mining.

Bhutan’s Continued Commitment to Blockchain Solutions

In addition to mining, Bhutan has shown a keen interest in other blockchain-based solutions. The country recently unveiled a decentralized digital identity app, with its crown prince serving as the first test subject. This move underscores Bhutan’s commitment to exploring digital technologies for economic growth and innovation.

Challenges and Opportunities Ahead

Bhutan’s foray into Bitcoin mining, while innovative, is not without its challenges. The secrecy surrounding these operations raises questions about transparency and governance in the digital age. Moreover, the environmental impact of such large-scale mining operations, particularly in a country known for its pristine natural landscapes and commitment to environmental conservation, is a matter of concern.

However, there are also significant opportunities. The potential revenue from Bitcoin mining could provide a much-needed boost to Bhutan’s economy, particularly in the wake of the pandemic’s impact on tourism and traditional industries. Additionally, the development of a domestic cryptocurrency industry could position Bhutan as a leader in digital finance within the region.


Bhutan’s secretive and extensive engagement in Bitcoin mining marks a significant departure from its traditional economic practices. As the country navigates the challenges of the digital economy, its journey provides valuable insights into the potential and risks of embracing cryptocurrency as a national strategy. For more detailed information on Bhutan’s Bitcoin mining operations and its implications, visit the Forbes website.

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